Contents

Executive Summary

01 Introduction

02 Awareness and Complexity – definition of terms

03 Media Consumption and Psychological Effects

04 Images as a way of spreading disinformation memorably

05 Messenger services – an overview

06 Disinformation on messenger services worldwide: A study of Germany

07 Disinformation on messenger services worldwide: A study of India

08 Disinformation on messenger services worldwide: A study of Brazil

09 Policy recommendations

10 Glossary

Bibliography

Author